Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The British general Sir William Howe was lured to Philadelphia in the belief that its large Tory element would rise up when joined by a British army and thus virtually remove Pennsylvania from the war. Dec 19, 1777. Having taken overall command of the right wing of the army, Sullivan left his division to confer with the other generals. On September 9, Washington positioned detachments to guard other fords above and below Chadds Ford, hoping to force the battle there. This is when the Battle of Brandywine took place. The British army was not able to pursue due to the onset of night. General George Washington had placed the American forces, about 20,300-strong, between Head of Elk and Philadelphia. Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 116th Infantry. Armies - American Forces was commanded by Gen. George Washington and consisted of about 14,500 Soldiers. The Battle of Brandywine occurred on Thursday, September 11, 1777. The British forces routed the Continental Army and forced them to withdraw, first, to the City of Chester, Pennsylvania, and then northeast toward Philadelphia. Major General John Sullivan's division extended northward along the Brandywine's east banks, covering the high ground north of Chadds Ford along with Major General Adam Stephen's division and Major General Lord Stirling's divisions. Washington conferred with Greene and Knox, the latter of whom was head of artillery, in the yard of the William Brinton house. Around 2 pm, the main British force appeared on the American right flank. Washington had committed a serious error in leaving his right flank wide open and could have brought about his army's annihilation had it not been for Sullivan, Stirling and Stephen's divisions, which bought them time. With Howe’s attack from the north and Knyphausen’s push through the middle at Chadd, the Americans were soon in full retreat. Repairs were made at the Van Leer Furnace and military supplies were also moved to Reading, Pennsylvania. The Battle of Brandywine occurred on September 11, 1777 between Continental (American) forces under General George Washington and Crown (British) forces under General William Howe. Although the battle was an American defeat, Washington extricated his force in good order and the Continentals demonstrated their ability to withstand the determined attack of British regulars. "Brandywine Creek calmly meanders through the Pennsylvania countryside today, but on September 11, 1777, it served as the scenic backdrop for the largest battle of the American Revolution, one that encompassed more troops over more land tha  Another British officer wrote that, "The Enemy had 502 dead in the field".  Marching north, the British Army brushed aside American light forces in a few skirmishes. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 227–229. British and American forces maneuvered around each other for the next several days with only a few encounters such as the Battle of Paoli on the night of September 20–21. Battle of Brandywine The foggy afternoon of September 11, 1777 marked a battle that would end the long period of frustration for the British army in North America.  On September 14, about 350 wounded Americans were taken from the British camp at Dilworth to a newly established hospital at Wilmington, Delaware. On September 11, 1777, the hamlet of Chadds Ford played host to one of the largest and deadliest battles of the American Revolutionary War, today called the Battle of Brandywine. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). A member of General Howe's staff claimed that 400 rebels were buried on the field by the victors. The battle was fought at mid-morning around the meeting house while the pacifist Quakers continued to hold their midweek service. The British captured it two weeks later on September 26, resulting the city falling under British control for nine months, until June of 1778. Greene's reinforcements, combined with the remnants of Sullivan's, Stephen's, and Stirling's divisions, formed south of Dilworth and stopped the pursuing British for nearly an hour, letting the rest of the army retreat. Updates? Battle of Brandywine The foggy afternoon of September 11, 1777 marked a battle that would end the long period of frustration for the British army in North America. Reproduced in Sawicki 1981, pp. Oct 17, 1777. In a day long battle, the British vanquished the American forces. Confident of success, Howe hoped to draw Washington into a decisive battle.  It was also the longest single-day battle of the war, with continuous fighting for 11 hours.. May 10, 1775. The American Battlefield Trust and its partners have acquired and preserved 10.4 acres (0.042 km2) of the battlefield. His forces were able to reconnoiter the British landing from Iron Hill near Newark, Delaware, about 9 miles (14 km) to the northeast. The main British column under General Cornwallis (and accompanied by General Howe) set out from Kennett Square at 5:00 a.m.. Local loyalist sources had provided Howe with knowledge of two unguarded fords, above the forks of the Brandywine. Having received intelligence from Colonel Bland's scouts, Washington ordered Sullivan to take overall command of Stirling and Stephen's divisions (in addition to his own) and quickly march north to meet the British flank attack. After a skirmish at Cooch's Bridge south of Newark, the British troops moved north and Washington abandoned a defensive encampment along the Red Clay Creek near Newport, Delaware, to deploy against the British at Chadds Ford. September 11 began with a heavy fog, which provided cover for the British troops.  The defeat and subsequent maneuvers left Philadelphia vulnerable. The battle raged between the Continental Army under General George Washington and the British army under General William Howe.The American forces numbered 11,000 and the British and Hessian forces were approximately 16,500 men strong.. One of the Quakers later wrote, "While there was much noise and confusion without, all was quiet and peaceful within.". Battle of Brandywine, (September 11, 1777), in the American Revolution, engagement near Philadelphia in which the British defeated the Americans but left the Revolutionary army intact. Omissions? The Battle of the Brandywine on September 11, 1777, marked the apparent end of a long period of frustration for the British in North America. His own division he left under the command of Preudhomme de Borre, with orders to shift to the right in order to link up with Stirling and Stephen's divisions (from left to right the divisions were arranged as Sullivan, Stirling, Stephen). https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-the-Brandywine, Lieutenant General Wilhelm von Knyphausen. September 9 1777.  This would suggest that of the "near 400" prisoners reported by Howe, only about 50 had surrendered unwounded.  Historian Thomas J. McGuire writes that, "American estimates of British losses run as high as 2,000, based on distant observation and sketchy, unreliable reports". The defeated Americans retreated to Chester where most of them arrived at midnight, with stragglers arriving until morning. History Map of the American Revolution: the Battle of the Brandywine - September 11, 1777; illustrating Battle positions and movements. Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, Troop A/1st Squadron/104th Cavalry. Eight Army National Guard units (103rd Eng Bn, A/1-104th Cav, 109th FA, 111th Inf, 113th Inf, 116th Inf, 1–175th Inf and 198th Sig Bn) and one active Regular Army Field Artillery battalion (1–5th FA) are derived from American units that participated in the Battle of Brandywine. A bayonet charge by the British grenadier battalions, in the center, similarly forced Stirling to retreat. The Brandywine Battlefield Historic Site sits on 46 acres of the former The Americans were also forced to leave behind many of their cannons on Meeting House Hill because almost all of their artillery horses were killed. Evening was approaching and, in spite of the early start Cornwallis had made in the flanking maneuver, most of the American army was able to escape. At the end of August, General Howe brought his army south by sea, threatening Philadelphia. The Hessian general rallied the Tories and ordered Ferguson's riflemen to take position behind a house on his right. Battle of Brandywine Part I. ~The conflict is a military conflict between The Kingdom of Great Britain and the thirteen colonies, In North America, during the American Revolution. Fighting was ferocious in places, but the Americans were soon in full retreat, pulling back to nearby Chester and leaving behind strategic cannons. Brandywine was one of the biggest battles of the Revolution, involving some 30,000 combatants, right up there with the Battle of Brooklyn (1776), which resembled Brandywine in so many ways, and the Battle of Monmouth (1778). Hill overlooking Sandy Hollow, where Gen. Stephen's Division deployed on the far right flank of the Continental Army. Howe's army departed from Sandy Hook, New Jersey, across New York Bay from the occupied town of New York City on the southern tip of Manhattan Island, on July 23, 1777, and landed near present-day Elkton, Maryland, at the point of the "Head of Elk" by the Elk River at the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay, at the southern mouth of the Susquehanna River. The engagement occurred near Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania … He conducted a masterly retreat from Barren Hill on May 28, 1778. five times did the Enemy drive our Troops from the Hill & as often was it Regained & the Summit often Disputed almost muzzle to muzzle." , The official British casualty list detailed 587 casualties: 93 killed (eight officers, seven sergeants and 78 rank and file); 488 wounded (49 officers, 40 sergeants, four drummers and 395 rank and file); and six rank and file missing unaccounted for. The Battle of Brandywine Creek took place in Pennslyvannia wes of Philidelphia. 343–345. 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